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Ornaments

Ornamentation during production

Glass can not only be decorated after the end of the production process, but also during being formed. This particular type of ornamentation is called "hot decoration".

Most often used are:

- alabasters

- crackles (frozen glass)

- air bubbles

Alabasters

Ornamentation with the usage of alabasters involves scooping of a small amount of glass mass and, immediately afterwards placing the bubble in the powder. Once fully covered in a colourful powder, the bubble is turned in the form, which aims to help the powder become fully joint with the mass. Then the bubble is warmed up, a portion of glass mass is scooped needed to create a full product and basic stages of glass production are followed.

With this particular technique we acquire creations with colourful smudges on the inside of the glass. For this method the glass mass used needs to be transparent and clear.

Crackles (Frozen glass)

Decorating the glass by surface fractures is usually called "crackle effect" or, in glass-making jargon, "freezing". It involves creating small, shallow and irregular cracks on the most outer layer of the glass. It is a technique used only with transparent and clear glass, and it's range of usage is practically limitless when it comes to products with thick walls.

Air bubbles

This decorating method involves creation of air bubbles in the walls of glass products, called "dew drops". A certain amount of air is entered into the walls, which, after the end of the process, is clearly visible on the surface.

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Matting

Matting is a technological method used to make the surface of the glass disperse the light regularily. Such a phenomenon is caused by the micro-inequalities created on the surface of the glass which, losing its natural smoothness and shine, becomes more or less rough. Thanks to such an exterior the glass loses its shine, becomes matt and non-transparent, even though it still lets the light pass.

Matting is used in order for the lampshades to disperse the light in a regular way. The effect of this technique relies mostly on creating the feeling of discretion and delicatness. Additionally, after matting, the shapes of the glass are more expressive.

There are three methods of matting:

  • Chemical matting
  • Mechanical mating (Sand matting)
  • Painting (Satinage)

 

1. Chemical matting

It uses the corrosive effect of hydrofluoric acid in such a way that there are numerous, regularily placed micro-cavities appearing on the glass surface.

 


2. Mechanical matting (Sand matting)

It involves chipping of small particles from the surface of the glass by using the kinetic energy of sand grains or other grinding powders. As a result, the surface becomes rough, harsh and intensely disperses the light.

 

3. Painting (Satinage)

A layer of concealing paint is applied in order to create a slight roughness of the glass surface, which causes dispersing of light. This method of matting requires the product to be scorched in an appropriate temperature after being painted.

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Painting

Painting of the glass involves applying a number of paint layers on the surface, creating colourful coats (more or less adjoining to the glass). Such a layer may cover the whole surface, or only its part, creating various patterns and shapes. Painting allows us to produce a wide range of decorations and numerous effects. 

Depending on the type of products, amount of the series and kinds of the pictures, there are three ways of painting the glass:

  • Manual method (Painting)
  • Spray painting
  • Decal method

 

1. Manual method (Painting)

The paint is applied with a brush or other painting devices. This particular technique can produce any pattern required. Afterwards, in order to strenghten the design, the glass should be scorched in a certain temperature, depending on the type of paint used.

 

2. Showering method

This technique involves applying the paint layers by showering them with the usage of air under pressure. It requires a stencil or a template, which allows for creation of many products in a short time. Afterwards, the glass is also to be scorched in a temperature depending on the paint used.

 

3. Decal method

Decal is a way to transfer colourful patterns from paper to glass. The required design is cut out of a piece of paper and dipped in water. After it is soaked, the copies are put on glass in a particular place and carefully pressed with a tampon to the surface in such a way that there is no air and not too much water between the copy and the glass. After the copies become dry, the glass is scorched in a certain temperature depending on the type of decal used.

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